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After this, however, the two versions diverge. Awakening, Erec hears her remark and demands an explanation. One could almost believe to have been transported into the supernatural world of the lais of Marie de France, a world that, as we have seen, is of little interest to Hartmann. The term parole, then, assumes an almost magical force, as found otherwise in a fairy tale. Like the term parole, mar fus also takes on the function of a leitmotif. It is immediately picked up by Erec, who demands to know why he is unfortunate , and Enite returns to the formulation at the conclusion of her remarks to Erec She clearly states how much she suffers from the accusations against Erec; she is even more grieved because she is blamed for the situation — She calls on Erec resolutely to change his ways, a surprising and psychologically less authentic turn, in that the previously timorous and tearful Enite is now able to speak in no uncertain terms.

But that is not all.

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Here another picture of the woman emerges, namely that of the Enite who, filled with anxiety that she might be rejected, bitterly regrets that she ever uttered the fateful parole. We recall that the image of Erec engendered before the sparrow hawk contest was quite the same, and already portended his victory in that battle. This should not, however, be viewed as a sign of arrogance superbia. But since it was individual misbehavior that caused Erec to drop out of courtly society, his reinstatement must likewise be based on individual actions.

Thus the episode concludes with a touch of humor, portending nothing unpleasant. The poet employs the term twice , , and it ranges throughout the entire account like a leitmotif, with Erek himself taking it up. All the rest is eliminated: there is no report about the knight putting on his armor, no attempted intervention by his father. Instead, Hartmann states that Erek conceals his armor under his garments, acting as if he would return soon, and departs secretly.

Externally, then, Erek is not for Hartmann a magnificent knight. The chivalric core must first of all be made visible again. Hartmann, by contrast, pays scant heed to this.

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Enite bursts into loud lamenting, gesticulating wildly. To God she directs the question why He allowed her to live, and to Death she makes the request that she be killed. She ends her self reproach by pleading with God and Death. And since the latter will not come, she resolves to commit suicide.

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In a rigorously rhetorical context, the female figure appears in a new light. But why here precisely? The Middle Ages were familiar with famous suicide scenes from the literature of classical antiquity, for instance that of Dido. The present situation is reminiscent of Pyramus and Thisbe. He clearly puts himself on the side of women, and with that takes the edge off the following scene, something that is important, since at its beginning we are confronted with her lamentation, a protest against God, and, at the end, with her resolve to commit suicide.

Its impact is thus lessened. Hartmann shapes the address to Death into a rhetorical masterpiece in which Enite can work herself up into a state approaching mystical love of death. The conclusion of the grand scene, too, is characteristic of Hartmann. Hartmann, on the other hand, lets himself be carried away to create a grand scene.

Hartmann, too, is not happy with this abrupt shift in mood. At first the count reacts understandingly to her behavior —7 , and attempts to reason with her again and again. But when, after two hundred verses, he sees that he is getting nowhere, he loses control of himself and hits Enite, thus effecting the turning point — Here Hartmann also employs appropriate vocabulary when the count, in his last effort to persuade Enite to yield to his entreaties, promises her the title of countess The psychological depiction of the count corresponds to the stylized hagiographic martyr model of Enite.

In this narrative model Hartmann takes mere allusions in his source and develops them into a full-blown temptation theme — To be sure, Enite does not become a saint in this way, but it is significant that such religious thought patterns present themselves quite naturally in a secular context. It is of no less interest and, indeed, something of a surprise that the episode that immediately follows moves into comedy.

The rules of courtly etiquette are overturned; everyone flees, thinking only of his own safety, so that a grotesque and comic chaos ensues. Completely unnecessarily, Hartmann inserts himself into the scene on three occasions , , —81 by commenting on the action and, in the last instance, even letting us know that brave as he otherwise might be, even he would have run from Erek. With their reunion on the one horse, the unfortunate physical separation of the couple is over, anticipating, once again, their final reconciliation, which now only has to be confirmed verbally. Hartmann takes the opportunity here to elaborate on the topic of indolence gemach , which he introduced as a motif in the verligen scene.

He stresses that Erek becomes impatient with his reconvalescence, since he was intent only on proving himself as a knight and not on taking it easy — It is significant that this change affects primarily Enite. She needs a new horse. The impact of this surprising and seemingly inappropriate expansion cannot be lightly dismissed as mere rhetorical amplification amplificatio , as the ending of the tale will reveal.

Hartmann omits this entire scene, as we shall see below. He was less interested in the ruler, Erek, than in the lovers Erek and Enite, whom he connects with the all-encompassing, ancient-medieval tradition of lovers depicted in the ambitious furnishings of the horse. The listener does not expect another adventure now. After all, everything has been settled, and the protagonists are on their way home.

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Both poets work in different ways to shape the special position of the adventure. Hartmann, however, has the travelers reach a crossroads around noon Not much later we hear that Guivreiz, as would be expected, is quite familiar with the area. His mistake, then, in recommending the wrong road is highly unlikely. It may well be that Hartmann inserted this narrative stumbling block intentionally in order to arouse attention. Further, we know that the more comfortable path almost always leads to peril, but this will not be the case here, thereby turning the common biblical concept on its head.

When he sees the Brandigan castle, Guivreiz realizes his mistake and wants to return to the road that leads to Brittanje. Erek wants nothing to do with that, and a long dispute ensues, with the result that Guivreiz finally agrees to spend the night at the castle. There are hints of an adventure that no one has ever survived. One simply reaches a castle that is surrounded by a turbulent stretch of water. Erec asks his companion about the castle. Surprisingly, Erec is interested solely in the name of the adventure — The name expresses the nature of the adventure, so much so that no further information is requested or is necessary.

That an adventure has a specific name and that the name becomes then a focus is not common in chivalric romances. Nonetheless, Hartmann is no less skilled in introducing the motif of the quest into his narrative. At first glance, the symbolism of the crossroads can suggest something negative, and the path taken proves to be highly dangerous. Moreover, Erek thanks God explicitly , for allowing him to take part in this exchange through the battle with the much more renowned Knight of the Orchard.

And should he be victorious, Erek hopes that God will grant him some honor as a result — Is Hartmann providing an analogy or is he secularizing religious concepts?

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The constant appeal to God, which cannot be dismissed as so many empty words, speaks for the former. The convergence of secular narrative material with religious thought patterns must have enhanced the effect. The same is true of the depiction of the further course that the Mabonagrin adventure pursues. Further, we are informed that Erek takes hardly any food, and departs after taking St. The portrayal of the situation of Mabonagrin and his mistress is, in the hands of both poets, somewhat akin to the squaring of a circle. To this mixture Hartmann adds a religious dimension.

That there can be no question of a type of integration here that could do justice to modern literary aesthetics only emphasizes even further that which is uniquely medieval in the account. Hartmann merely refers back to his source, But the garden and the enchantment are all that is left of the fairy-tale model. The lady is not a fairy but rather a relative of Enite, and Mabonagrin is related to the lord of the castle.

How the lady advanced to the position of mistress of the garden is left unanswered. Similarly, the circumstances under which the lady gained control over the knight have nothing to do with fairies and fairy tales.


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Rather it is a tale of youthful love, a subject with which the medieval audience was familiar. The knight, Mabonagrin, promises his love to grant her request without first knowing what it is, and is now forced to remain in the garden with her until one comes who will defeat him. Through his deed, Erek has released the sorrowing land, and joy has returned.


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  8. The exquisite robe with which Erec is cloaked further enhances this impression. Hartmann approaches this part of the romance radically differently. In his hands, the element of compassion becomes the major motif of the episode, a motif already introduced during the sparrow hawk episode when Erek shows mercy to the defeated Iders. It is quite clear that Erek is king by the grace of God — not Arthur! Here, in contrast to the Angevin cultural sphere, the Arthurian world was, apparently, too distant.