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However, survival studies showed that Mediterranean fruit flies continued to harbor viable GFP-tagged E. The results of a restricted field survey demonstrated that wild flies do carry coliforms and that some even harbor presumptive E. These findings highlight the potential of the fly to carry human pathogens and to serve as a vector for transmission of food-borne diseases. Our findings strengthen the need for further investigations to evaluate the actual epidemiological potential of the Mediterranean fruit fly to disseminate human pathogens. Control measures to reduce fruit fly populations should include cultural control, as well as strict sanitation measures both within and surrounding orchards.

These measures are expected to eliminate the risk of disseminating bacterial pathogens to commercially grown fruits. We also thank Zvi Mendel Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center for helpful discussions and three anonymous reviewers whose comments greatly improved the manuscript.

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This work was partially supported by an intramural grant from The Volcani Center to S. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Appl Environ Microbiol v. Appl Environ Microbiol. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Phone: Fax: E-mail: li. Received Oct 26; Accepted Feb 1. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is a cosmopolitan pest of hundreds of species of commercial and wild fruits.

Preparation of flies. Contamination of Mediterranean fruit flies with E. Contamination of apples by Mediterranean fruit flies. Field survey. TABLE 1. Sampling location Ecosystem type No. Open in a separate window.

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Flies samples were collected with McPhail traps loaded with Biolure. The traps were exposed for 2 weeks during March and April Statistical analysis. Transmission of E. Wild Mediterranean fruit flies carry coliforms and E. Microscopic examination of contaminated Mediterranean fruit flies.

Besser, R. Lett, J. Weber, M. Doyle, T. Barrett, J. Wells, and P. An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli OH7 in fresh-pressed apple cider. JAMA : Beuchat, L. Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce. Food Prot. Produce handling and processing practices. Cayol, J.


Causse, C. Louis, and J. Medfly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann Dipt. Cody, S. Glynn, J. Farrar, K. Cairns, P. Griffin, J. Kobayashi, M. Fyfe, R. Hoffman, A. King, J. Lewis, B. Swaminathan, R. Bryant, and D.

Fruit fly and its life-cycle under the microscope

An outbreak of Escherichia coli OH7 infection from unpasteurized commercial apple juice. Enkerlin, W.

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Economic evaluation of three alternative methods for control of the Mediterranean fruit fly Diptera: Tephritidae in Israel, Palestinian Territories, and Jordan. Goverd, K.

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Beech, R. Hobbs, and R. The occurrence and survival of coliforms and salmonellas in apple juice and cider. Hendrichs, J. Katsoyannos, D. Papaj, and R.

Sex differences in movement between natural feeding and mating sites and tradeoffs between food consumption, success and predator evasion in Mediterranean fruit flies Diptera: Tephritidae. Oecolgia 86 : Katsoyannos, and R. Bird feces in the nutrition of adult Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata Diptera: Tephritidae in nature. Robinson, J. Cayol, and W. Medfly areawide sterile insect technique programmes for prevention, suppression or eradication: the importance of mating behavior studies.

Iwasa, M. Makino, H. Asakura, H. Kobori, and Y. Janisiewicz, W.

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Conway, M. Brown, G. Sapers, P. Fratamico, and R. Fate of Escherichia coli OH7 on fresh cut apple tissue and its potential for transmission by fruit flies. Sasaki, N. Saito, K. Tamura, K. Suzuki, H. Watanabe, and N.

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Houseflies: not simple mechanical vectors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli OH7. Lauzon, C. Symbiotic relationships of tephritids, p. Bourtzis and T. Miller ed. Liquido, N. Cunningham, and S.